Call of Duty Advanced Warfare Campaign Story Trailer
My gifs are kinda getting better…Only time will tell
Hit that heart if you like it or think I’m a complete loony
— Johnny Cash (via feellng)
A military-religious order established by Hugh of Payns in 1119 and dissolved two centuries later amid rumors of sacrilegious and blasphemous orgies. The order’s modern fame derives largely from mythologizing by eighteenth-century Freemasons. Its original purpose was the protection of pilgrims traveling in the Holy Land after the conquest of Jerusalem by the first crusaders in 1099. Members of the order took the monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, but unlike monks or canons regular, they served a military purpose. The king of Jerusalem allotted them space in what was then thought to be the Temple of Solomon, whence the name of the order, the Knights of the Temple of Solomon, or Knights Templar. Under the guidance and personal patronage of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who recognized that they formed “a new type of order in the holy places” and described them in his work In Praise of the New Knighthood in 1136, the order received papal recognition at the Council of Troyes in 1129, established a Rule for its members, and placed them under the master of the order. Pious gifts of land and incomes in both the Holy Land and western Europe provided the order’s support, and it recruited members in both places.
Although the novel combination of monastic discipline and military activity generated considerable criticism in the twelfth century, the Templars soon became a prominent and often independent military force in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, receiving extensive papal privileges in three bulls issued between 1139 and 1145. The order also received the patronage of European nobles and rulers, established Templar communities in much of western Europe, and constructed a series of strong, virtually autonomous castles in the Holy Land. The order became so powerful that it could act independently of the monarchy of the Latin Kingdom. At its greatest extent in the thirteenth century, the vast Templar network of 870 castles and preceptories housed 7,000 members of the various grades of knights, sergeants, and chaplains, 2,500 of whom served in the east, with the remainder organized into territorial provinces in western Europe. In his romance Parzival, written early in the thirteenth century, the great German poet Wolfram von Eschenbach (d. 1225) idealized the Templars in his description of the order of custodians and protectors of the Holy Grail, the Templeisen.
In addition to their religious, military, and political prominence, the Templars also became a powerful financial institution, serving as bankers to both crusaders and pilgrims, who could deposit funds with Templar houses in France and elsewhere and withdraw them as they needed from Templar houses along the route to Jerusalem. Templar financial expertise also served the rulers of Europe, particularly the kings of France, whose treasury was located in the Paris Temple.
Because the order was so closely identified with the Latin Kingdom, the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187, the loss of Acre (the last Christian-held territory in the east) in 1291, and the relocation of the Templars’ headquarters to Cyprus led to renewed heavy criticism of the Templars and to proposals for reform of the Templars and for their merger with other military- religious orders, notably that of the Knights of the Hospital of St. John, or Knights Hospitallers. Under Grand Master James of Molay (who was master from 1293 to 1314), the Templars resisted this and other reform proposals, insisting upon their distinctive responsibilities for the defense of the Holy Land and criticizing from long experience the tactical shortcomings of contemporary proposals for a new crusade.
Although the order had maintained good relations with King Philip IV of France (ruled 1285–1314), he turned against it in 1307; historians still debate his reasons. Several years of expensive warfare with England and in Flanders, the progressive debasement of the royal coinage, Philip’s long and destructive struggle with Pope Boniface VIII (ruled 1294–1303), the strong influence of Philip’s ministers, and the fear that the kingdom was polluted by the presence of Jews, heretics, and sorcerers all appear to have combined in Philip’s determination to purify the kingdom, and, in Philip’s mind, that purification came to include the destruction of the Templars.
On October 13, 1307, Philip arrested all of the order’s members in France, around 2,000 men, confiscated their property, and urged the kings of England and Aragon and Pope Clement V (ruled 1305–1314) to do the same. His charges against the order included the practice of sacrilegious initiation rites for new members, the denial of Christ, apostasy, idolatry (the worship of an idol named “Baphomet” or “Mahomet”), simony, and sodomy. These charges were not only brought against individual members in trials that included the use of judicial torture but were also publicized widely throughout the kingdom and beyond by Philip’s servants. The trials resulted in graphic and horrifying confessions, including that of Grand Master James of Molay (later retracted), whose details were also widely publicized. Outside of France and the territories it controlled, the Templars were usually found not guilty. But inside France and its territories, many Templars were convicted, and many who were deemed impenitent or relapsed we re executed. Those who had been reconciled to the Church or found not guilty were pensioned off or dispersed among other monastic con- gregations. The scandal led Clement V to dissolve the order in 1312. After retracting his confession, James of Molay was burned at the stake on March 8, 1314. Upon the papal dissolution of the order, its properties, wealth, and archives we re turned over to the Knights Hospitallers after Philip’s expenses for the trials had been deducted.
The details of the confessions and the papal dissolution of the order were received throughout Europe with both hostility and praise. Dante condemned Philip IV, Clement V, and Boniface VIII in the Divine Comedy. However, since the order had long held its chapter meetings in great secrecy, had devised some forms of secret internal communication, and had regarded itself as an elite organization within Christendom, subordinate only to the grand master and the pope, the charges made against its members seemed plausible to many, particularly to those who followed the publicists of Philip IV. The royalist account of the trials influenced the kingdom’s quasi-official history, the Grandes chroniques de France, which further tainted the Templars with charges of treason, collaboration with the Muslims, and some elements of sorcery. Proroyalist writers in France continued to justify Philip IV’s actions until the eighteenth century.
At the same time as the Templar trials, a number of cases of political sorcery also were tried in France, many involving figures around the royal court and stressing the vulnerability of kings, popes, and members of the royal family, especially to diabolical sorcery. Beginning in the early fifteenth century, new charges of political sorcery spread in England, France, and the Burgundian Low Countries, and the formal conceptualization of diabolical witchcraft between 1430 and 1450 in the region of the upper Rhine Valley led to a growing fear of both diabolical sorcerers and witches throughout much of Europe. The linking of the Templars with diabolical sorcery was begun by the chronicler Guillaume Paradin in the mid-sixteenth century, although outside France learned opinion was generally more favorable than hostile to the memory of the Templars.
During the eighteenth century, however, Freemasonry, a secret ethical society prominent initially in France and Scotland, developed for itself a fictitious history that pressed the Templars into historical service as antecedents to the modern movement, thereby coloring Freemasonry’s imaginary and remote past with both nobility and a place in the long chain of imaginary Freemasons whose traditions the eighteenth- century Freemasons professed to continue. The growth of Freemasonry and the increasing prominence of the Templars in its fable coincided with a general revival of sentimental interest in the Middle Ages. In the case of the Freemasons’ adoption of the Templars, the movement included the idea that the order had left behind ancient secret wisdom, magical powers, and great hidden wealth. In the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the vogue of secret societies like the Illuminati and the Rosicrucians and the concurrent fear of the political dangers they and others raised inspired several writers to compose extensive imaginary histories that attributed to the Templars all of the evils in the world.
The most notable of these was Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall’s The Mystery of Baphomet of 1818. Both Templar sympathizers and Templar critics accepted the fabulous history, the former tilting it toward a favorable interpretation, the latter condemning it savagely, as did Walter Scott in Ivanhoe (1819). Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Templar fantasies were worked over time and again, by novelists, esoteric groups, and individual writers of fantasies with or with- out an axe to grind, even linking the imaginary Templars to the Shroud of Turin. Umberto Eco’s 1988 novel Foucault’s Pendulum offers a witty and complex send-up of the Templar mythology that began with Freemasonry in the eighteenth century.
References and further reading:
Barber, Malcolm. 1994. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
———. 2000. The Trial of the Templars. 1978. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Forey, Alan. 1994. Military Orders and Crusades. Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
———. 2001. The Fall of the Templars in the Crown of Aragon. Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
Partner, Peter. 1982. The Murdered Magicians: The Templars and Their Myth. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Siberry, Elizabeth. 2000. The New Crusaders: Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
— Golden’s Encyclopedia of Witchcraft
Really well done AR-15 build by gotfish at the AR15 forum. Thankfully he put up a parts list of what was used. I’m a fan of covering up as much of the barrel as possible; always liked the monolithic-look. This does give me ideas for my Dissipator build. (GRH)
- DD upper and 14.5” CHF barrel / low profile gas block
- Spike’s Enhanced lower
- Troy TRX Standard 13” rail and sights
- Magpul STR, AFG, Moe+ grip, mags
- Surefire G2X Tactical with Gear Sector mount
- YHM 5C1 flash hider
- BCM BCG & Charging handle
I love to see children who are so delicate and gentle with animals. It warms my heart amidst a sea of brats pulling cats’ tails and getting whacked.
Also JESUS THAT’S A SNUGGLY CHICKEN.
I love how she reaches up on her tippy toes to snuggle into his shoulder.
To be more exact, that’s a hen. Which is the female. This is likely not his first encounter with her. My grandpa had chickens and hens, and if you visit them frequently like this they develop affection to you. I would know, because I sat in the chicken coop alot. The hens get a small maternal kick, and come to cuddle you because she wants to keep you warm, like she would do with her chicks. This means the boy has spent alot of time with her, and that just makes it more heart warming.
wolf playing in the snow